A hybrid structure is made of brick or block for building walls, reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete floors. Because of its simple construction and low cost, it is one of the most widely used structural forms, but its self weight is larger and the anti seismic performance of the wall is poor. In order to improve its seismic performance, reinforced concrete structure column is added at the intersection and corner of exterior wall, also called aseismatic column. The structural column is connected with the ring beam of the building and the roof to improve the integrity, strength and deformation capacity of the building. When the wall is built with hollow blocks, the steel can be inserted into the hole of the block which is through and through, and the concrete is perfused in the hole to form a reinforced concrete column to increase the anti earthquake ability of the building.
Internal force calculation: See the static analysis of masonry structure house.
Folded and assembled large plate structure
The structure of assembly type large plate structure assembled by precast concrete wallboard and floor slab is a high industrial structure system developed after the Second World War. The main advantages are commercialized production, high efficiency in site construction, low labor intensity, light self weight, and better structural strength and deformability than mixed structure. However, the cost is high and large transport Hoisting Machinery is needed. The layout is not flexible enough. Wallboards are divided into internal and external wallboards according to their architectural functions. The inner wall panels are mainly used as load-bearing components, made of single material. The exterior wall panels are generally non bearing wall panels, which have the functions of thermal insulation, heat insulation and water proofing. They are complicated in structure, and some are made of composite wall panels with various materials. The wallboard is divided into concrete hollow wall panels, solid wall panels, lightweight aggregate concrete wall panels, industrial waste concrete wall panels, vibrating brick walls, etc. according to the materials used. The connection structure of the assembled large plate structure is the key to whether the house can give full play to its strength, ensure the necessary rigidity and the overall performance of the space. Ways to strengthen the connection:
(1) Welding the reinforcing bars extending from the upper and lower wallboards to the adjacent floors;
2. The walls and floors have slots around each side to increase the ability of joints to transmit shear.
The joints are poured into the whole with concrete. It is also useful to add vertical prestress in the wall to connect the floor slab and the wallboard as a whole.
Internal force calculation: strength calculation of wallboard, floor slab and joint should be subjected to vertical and horizontal loads. The internal force analysis of the wall: in the vertical load and horizontal load, the wall is calculated by the vertical member supported on the roof, floor and foundation by the non moving hinges at both ends. In the horizontal load in the plane, the wall is calculated by the vertical cantilever structure embedded in the foundation, while the joint work of the vertical and horizontal walls is considered. Influence and size of wall opening.
Folding cast-in-place wallboard structure
Cast-in-place wallboard structure wall concrete cast-in-place, floor adopts precast or cast-in-place housing structure. The main advantage is that the seismic performance is good. Compared with the mixed structure, the amount of plastering in the wall is greatly reduced, the labor intensity is reduced, and the amount of labor is less. Compared with the assembly type large plate structure, the construction is simple, so it has developed rapidly and has become one of the main structural forms of the multi-storey and high-rise residential buildings in the earthquake area of China. The wall materials and construction methods of the cast-in-place wallboard structure can be divided into two types of cast-in-situ concrete, both inside and outside walls and inner and longitudinal walls. The exterior wall adopts prefabricated large plates (for short, cast in place) or bricks and blocks (for short), and the cast-in-place walls can be constructed or produced by using formwork (large formwork, combined formwork, tunnel die formwork). It is constructed by sliding mode and drawing method. The floor slab is cast-in-place concrete floor, prefabricated strip or whole slab, and the floor slab should be made of continuous slab to improve the integrity of the building. The wall structure should be built outside the walls and poured into the concrete walls to ensure the good combination of the inside and outside walls.
Internal force calculation: under vertical load, the internal force is divided according to the area ratio of cross section. When lateral horizontal force is used, a part of the longitudinal wall can be used as the effective flange of the horizontal wall. The calculation can be simplified as a frame. Each wall of the wall is used as frame column, the continuous beam of the horizontal wall is used as frame beam, and the floor is used as articulated connecting rod. When the vertical horizontal force is used, the transverse wall takes part in the work, and the structure works together along the longitudinal and transverse walls. The calculation can be simplified into a composite frame composed of inner and outer walls. The continuous beam of the longitudinal wall is used as a frame beam, and the wall and transverse walls of the longitudinal wall form a frame column. If the internal and external wall materials are not the same, the thickness of the outer wall should be converted according to the ratio of the elastic modulus of the external and inner wall materials.
It is divided into two types: inner wall plate and exterior wall plate.
(1) internal Wall Panels. There are three kinds of wallboard, longitudinal wall plate and partition board. The wallboard and the longitudinal wallboard are all load-bearing wall panels, and the partition boards are non bearing wall panels. The inner wall board should have the function of sound insulation and fire protection. The inner wall panels are usually made of single material (ordinary concrete, silicate concrete or lightweight aggregate concrete), with two kinds of solid and hollow.
2. Exterior Wall Panels. There are three kinds of facade exterior panels, gable panels and eaves panels. The front facade is a self bearing wallboard, and the gable wall and the eaves wall are load-bearing walls.
Board. Besides the function of sound insulation and fire protection, the exterior wall should also have the functions of low consumption, energy saving, heat insulation, seepage resistance, anti freezing and thawing, carbonization and so on. The exterior wall board can be made from single material of light aggregate, and can also be made of composite material (structure layer, thermal insulation layer and veneer).
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